Prior to analyses of
- Cyclic AMP
- Cyclic GMP
- Catecholamines and their metabolites
- Phosphorylated Proteins
In neurochemical studies of the brain, it is of great importance to accurately measure neurochemical events in vivo. However, it is difficult to perform reproducible and meaningful measurement of these events because rapid post-mortem changes occur in the brain concentrations of several metabolites and some neurotransmitters.
Therefore, various techniques have been developed to prevent post-mortem changes. One of the more common method is cooling or freezing by immersion of the living animal and the decapitated head in liquid Nitrogen or cooled Freon to inactivate enzymes involved in the metabolism of these compounds. Although cooling is frequently used in many laboratories, it is not fully effective in preventing post-mortem changes. The time required to freeze deep structure of the brain may range from 10 – 90 seconds due to the poor thermal conductivity of tissues surrounding the brain; post-mortem changes will occur during this period.
An alternate method is microwave heating to inactivate enzymes. The method has several advantages over cooling or freezing :
If microwave power of sufficient level is focused on the animal’s head, the enzymes in the whole brain can be completely inactivated in a very short time. Further, the brain can be dissected easily and reproducibly at room temperature.
Therefore, microwave irradiation system is quite useful when measuring Acetylcholine, Choline, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic GMP, GABA, DOPA, 5-HTP, Serotonin, Endorphin, Prostaglandin, Catecholamines and their metabolites, Phosphorylated Proteins and Glycogen in the brain and so forth.
Microwave fixation system must be such as to satisfy the following criteria:
- Can elevate the temperature of brain up to 75-90ºC as rapidly as possible.
- Can effectively focus microwave energy only on the head of an animal.
- Will give the same results from animal to animal.
- The apparatus should be easily and safely used since personnel not experienced in microwave technology will use it.
- The apparatus should be safely desigend so that the microwave leakage will not exceed 5mW/cm2 which is the Japanese safety standard for home microwave ovens.
- All control of the instrument is through the Touch Panel Display located on the front panel of the machine.
- Exposure conditions can be set digitally.
Example : Mouse of 28g : 5kW 0.94sec Rat of 300g : 5kW 1.40sec
- Switching power supply has been employed in order to comply with line voltage fluctuation problem. Transformer is no longer required.
When ordering, please specify either 3-Phase 190-240V 30amp or 380-440V 20amp.
- As an eco-friendly air-cooling method is employed, water is no longer required.
- Very compact and lightweight. The instrument net weight is only 103kg, less than half of the conventional model.
- CE certified MMW-05 is safely designed so that the microwave leakage will not exceed 1mW/cm2.
- Applicator Head
- Applicator Door Latch
- Touch Panel Display
- Main Switch (circuit breaker)
- Air Inlet
- Caster Wheel
- Applicator Cap
- Applicator Door Switch
- Applicator Door
- Applicator Head Rest
- Air Outlet
- Power Line Inlet
|Oscillator||Panasonic Magnetron 2M265-M11|
|Microwave Power Output||5 kW max.( 2-5 kW variable)|
|Oscillation Frequency||2,450 ±30 MHz|
|Cooling Requirements||Air Cooling|
|Exposure Time||0.10 - 2.99 sec (0.01 sec steps)|
|Pausing Time||3 min|
|Power Consumption||8 kVA|
|Frequency||50 or 60 Hz|
|Power Requirements||190-240V 30A 3Phase or 380-440V 20A 3Phase|
|Outside Dimensions||W750 x D550 x H1,275 mm|
|Weight||Approx. 103 kg|
|APPLICATOR HEAD||SUITABLE ANIMAL HOLDER|
|TAW-174P||WJM-24 for Mouse 15-20g
WJM-28 for Mouse 20-40g
WJM-30 for Mouse 40-50g
|TAW-424SP||WJR-S for Rat 150-250g|
|TAW-424MP||WJR-M for Rat 250-400g
WJR-L for Rat 400-500g
Water-Jacketed Animal Holders
THE STANDARD SYSTEM COMES SUPPLIED WITH:
- Applicator Head ( Any one from the list ) – 1
- Animal Holder ( Any one from the list ) – 1
- Dust Cover – 1
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
- Oe, Y., Baba, O., Ashida, H., Nakamura, C, H., & Hirase, H. (2016). Glycogen distribution in the microwave-fixed mouse brain reveals heterogeneous astrocytic patterns. Glia, 29 JUN 2016, DOI: 10.1002/glia.23020
- Smeland, B. O., Hadera, G. M., McDonald, S. T., Sonnewald, U., & Borges, K. (2013). Brain mitochondrial metabolic dysfunction and glutamate level reduction in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy in mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 33(7), 1090-1097